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Heat Pumps

heat-pumps-roundIntroduction

Heat pumps absorb heat from the outside air, heat stored naturally in the ground or heat stored in a water source. This heat can then be used to heat radiators, underfloor heating systems, or warm air convectors and hot water in your home. A heat pump extracts heat from the above sources in the same way that a fridge extracts heat from its inside. It can get heat from the air even when the temperature is as low as -15° C. Heat pumps have some impact on the environment as they need electricity to run, but the heat they extract from the ground, air, or water is constantly being renewed naturally.  

Technologies

A heat pump works by using the evaporation and condensing of a refrigerant to move heat from one place to another.  The system is powered by a compressor, which moves the fluid around the system. The Coefficient of Performance (CoP) is the ratio of heat produced to work input. A typical heat pump will have a CoP of 3-4 meaning that for every 1kW of electricity used by the heat pump 3-4kW of heat will be supplied. A typical electrical heater has a CoP of 1, i.e. 1kW of electricity produces 1kW of heat and from this it is easy to see that using this electricity to power a heat pump is a much more efficient way to heat buildings. heat-pumps

Air Source Heat Pumps

Split & Mono

Daikin Split and Daikin Monobloc Units

Heat from the air is absorbed at low temperature into a refrigerant. This refrigerant then passes through a compressor where its temperature is increased, and transfers its higher temperature heat to the heating and hot water circuits of the house. There are two main types of air source heat pump systems. An air-to-water system distributes heat via your wet central heating system. Heat pumps work much more efficiently at a lower temperature than a standard boiler system would. This makes them more suitable for underfloor heating systems or larger radiators, which give out heat at lower temperatures over longer periods of time. An air-to-air system produces warm air which is circulated by fans to heat your home, an air-to-air system is unlikely to provide you with hot water as well.

Ground Source Heat Pumps

Ground Source

NIBE F1245

Heat from the ground is absorbed at low temperatures into a fluid inside a loop of pipe (a ground loop) buried underground. The fluid then passes through a compressor that raises it to a higher temperature, which can then heat water for the heating and hot water circuits of the house. The cooled ground-loop fluid passes back into the ground where it absorbs further energy from the ground in a continuous process as long as heating is required. Normally the loop is laid flat or coiled in trenches about a metre deep, but if there is not enough space in your garden you can install a vertical loops down into the ground to a depth of up to 100 metres for a typical domestic home. Heat pumps have some impact on the environment as they need electricity to run, but the heat they extract from the ground, the air, or water is constantly being renewed naturally.

Considerations

For a Ground Source Heat Pump a loop of pipe must be buried in the ground. Therefore sufficient land area must be available, although there is the option to run the pipes vertically in a bore-hole which will require much less space. Ground which holds water will produce a more efficient system. Air Source Heat Pumps do not require this land area and exchange heat using a fan unit outside. Air Source Heat Pumps can lose efficiency with a drop in outside air temperature , but Ground Source Heat Pumps do not suffer from this problem as once you get to a depth of 1-2m the ground maintains a constant temperature of around 11⁰C. A well insulated building will reduce the heating requirements and make heat pumps a more viable option. The efficiency of heat pumps increases when the output temperature is low, therefore these systems work best with underfloor heating, however it is just as possible to convert radiators or warm air systems. An efficient heat pump will be cheaper than using oil, LPG or electric storage systems and can be an equivalent cost to mains gas boilers. Little maintenance is required following installation.
Both air source and ground source installations will usually come under permitted development rules meaning planning permission is rarely required.

 

 

 

Heat Pump Options from RES Devon

Daikin Althermalogo-daikin

Altherma is a highly flexible, fully integrated sustainable home heating system. At the heart of the system lies an air to water heat pump that extracts heat from the outside air, raises this heat to a higher temperature and then distributes warmth around the home. Because of this advanced technology, three quarters of the heat generated by the Altherma system is completely free of charge!   Daikin has more than 50 years' experience producing heat pumps and the whole system is manufactured entirely 'in house' so you can be assured of a top quality product. Furthermore, RES have a professional and highly trained design and installation team to ensure that the whole project fits your requirements and is completed successfully.

 Altherma-House

 

 

Air Source OUtdoorAltherma Flex_OutdoorFlex INdoor Flex-Indoor_OutdoorGround Source Heatpump INdoor 1Heatpump INdoorHeatpump INdoor2